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Video: Rospotrebnadzor Described Three Main Types Of Research On COVID-19 In The Country
Rospotrebnadzor described three main types of research on COVID-19 in the country
We are talking about molecular diagnostics, tests for antibodies and viral antigens
Photo: Pedro Tenorio
According to the department, molecular diagnostics of coronavirus infection is carried out for people with ARVI symptoms, as well as for those who have had contact with a possible source of infection. For this, a swab from the nose and oropharynx is taken and the presence or absence of the RNA virus in the human biological material is detected by the PCR method. The absence of the genetic material of the pathogen means that the person is not infected at the time of taking the test. To confirm or exclude the presence of infection, the test is repeated after 10 days.
"Also, retesting is necessary when patients with COVID-19 are discharged from the hospital - for this, it is necessary to obtain two negative results with an interval of at least a day," Rospotrebnadzor said in a statement.
Another type of research that has become very popular recently is the analysis for IgM and IgG antibodies. IgM immune cells are produced at the very beginning of the disease and indicate that a person is sick right now. IgGs appear when a person has overcome the infection, and remain long enough after the illness. It is generally accepted that their presence speaks of a past illness and an emerging immunity.
“The results obtained can serve not only to determine the antibody immune response in a particular person, but also to assess the number of people who have had the disease in different population groups. The test for antibodies by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) also determines the titer - the number of antibodies detected,”the ministry said.
Another test for detecting infection is the analysis for viral antigens: proteins that make up the virus that are recognized by the immune system. If the test for antibodies examines their presence in the blood, then this test detects viral antigens in a nasal swab.
“The absence of viral antigens also means that a person does not have an infection. But, as in all other tests, the result is relevant only at the time of the analysis and does not guarantee that a person could not become infected later, after the study. The antigen test is quite simple, it can be performed directly at the doctor's appointment. At the same time, a significant limitation of its use is its low analytical sensitivity,”Rospotrebnadzor reports.
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