Plasma From COVID-19 Cured Patients May Help Patients Who Have Not Been Ventilated

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Plasma From COVID-19 Cured Patients May Help Patients Who Have Not Been Ventilated
Plasma From COVID-19 Cured Patients May Help Patients Who Have Not Been Ventilated
Video: Plasma From COVID-19 Cured Patients May Help Patients Who Have Not Been Ventilated
Video: Convalescent plasma therapy | for Covid 19 treatment 2023, February
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Plasma from COVID-19 Cured Patients May Help Patients Who Have Not Been Ventilated

New York doctors have received encouraging data on convalescent plasma treatment, but the effectiveness of this treatment method remains to be investigated.

Plasma from COVID-19 Cured Patients May Help Patients Who Have Not Been Ventilated
Plasma from COVID-19 Cured Patients May Help Patients Who Have Not Been Ventilated

Photo: Biblioteca Biomedica Centro di Documentazione

On March 24, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) authorized the use of plasma from COVID-19 patients for experimental treatment of patients with the virus. Following this, the Mount Sinai Medical Complex in New York called upon recovered people to become plasma donors. According to the doctors, they did not have time to organize a randomized study, so they conducted a control study in which they compared the condition of 39 patients who had a severe course of COVID-19 and received plasma with patients who were treated with other methods.

According to the results of the study, the preprint of which is posted on the resource medrxiv.org, it turned out that mortality in the "plasma" group was 12.8%, in the control group - 24.4%. The difference was not statistically significant, the researchers said, but when examining patients' oxygen needs, the results were much better in patients who received plasma. The data obtained showed that plasma does not increase the survival rate of ventilated patients, but it helps non-intubated patients to recover.

“At least we've found out there is some benefit to convalescent plasma,” said Mount Sinai virologist Nicole Bouvier. She also noted that right now, doctors are working on a study of data from 275 patients. Trials of plasma efficacy for COVID-19 patients are currently underway in Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States, with results expected in the coming months.

Scientists warn that plasma treatment may not be a panacea even if proven to be effective, because there may not be enough donors. The volume of collected plasma, depending on the weight of the donor, ranges from 690 to 880 milliliters - this is enough for one or two patients. In addition, the donor's blood type must match that of the recipient.

The plasma transfusion procedure also carries many health risks for the patient. Pathogenic microorganisms can enter the recipient's blood, which can cause acute lung damage, or the body may not adapt to the added blood volume. In both cases, there is a risk of death.

The purpose of a plasma transfusion is to transfer antibodies from the blood of a recovered person to a patient in the acute phase of the disease. Scientists call this method "passive antibody therapy" because the person receives external antibodies, and does not generate an immune response on their own, as after vaccination. Plasma transfusion was used with varying success during the Spanish flu pandemic at the beginning of the last century, as well as for the treatment of measles, Argentine hemorrhagic fever, the SARS outbreak in Hong Kong and during the Ebola epidemic in Africa.

Chinese doctors were the first to experiment with convalescent plasma to treat COVID-19 patients during an outbreak in Wuhan in January. In April, they announced that all 10 plasma recipients had improved, while patients in the control group who did not receive this therapy died.

This method is also used in Russia, but there is still no scientific data on its effectiveness in our country. Last week, Moscow Mayor Sergei Sobyanin announced that 672 residents of the capital had become plasma donors.

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