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Video: "Woke Up - Plaster Cast" - May 20 Is World Day Of Traumatologist
"Woke up - gypsum" - May 20 is World Day of Traumatologist
Traumatologists joke that they love all kinds of sports except chess and make money on people who have overcome fear. On the occasion of an unofficial holiday for traumatologists and orthopedists, MedPortal has collected the most interesting facts from the history of this difficult profession.
Photo: Edal Anton Lefterov
From Neanderthals to Ambroise Paré
Traumatology can be safely called the oldest profession, since this area of medicine emerged almost earlier than others. They tried to treat fractures even in prehistoric times: on the skeletons of Neanderthals, archaeologists found traces of intravital healing of injuries, including quite successful ones. In ancient Egypt, cases made of palm leaves were used to fix broken limbs.
The ancient Greek healer Hippocrates was the first to systematize the knowledge of traumatology, who wrote the scientific works "On fractures", "On joints", "On levers" in the 4th century BC. He also created the first apparatus in history for comparing bone fragments, and the proposed scientists use the method of straightening a dislocated shoulder to this day.
The foundation of modern traumatology was also created in ancient Rome. Surgeon Claudius Galen studied injuries and deformations of the skeleton and was the first to come up with the terms "lordosis", "kyphosis" and "scoliosis", and scientist Cornelius Celsus described the technique of bone surgery.
A huge contribution to the development of traumatology and orthopedics was made by one of the fathers of modern medicine, the Frenchman Ambroise Paré in the 16th century. It was he who created an orthopedic corset and shoes for correcting bone deformities and significantly improved surgical instruments and prostheses.
Turner and Vreden's legacy
The first bone-setting school in Russia was founded in the middle of the 17th century in Moscow. A hundred years later, Peter I founded the Medical-Surgical School, which paid special attention to the bone-setting sciences.
Military surgeon Nikolai Pirogov paid a lot of attention to traumatology in his work. He developed the technique of osteoplastic amputation and was the first to use a "molded alabaster bandage" to treat fractures and transport wounded soldiers - a plaster cast is made in its image and likeness today.
At the beginning of the twentieth century, Russian traumatology and orthopedics reached a new level of development by the efforts of surgeons Heinrich Turner and Roman Vreden. Their discoveries and developments, as well as practical recommendations, are still applied all over the world, and the Russian school of traumatology and orthopedics is considered one of the strongest.
Turner opened the first department of orthopedics, on his own initiative in 1913 an orthopedic clinic was built at the Medico-Surgical Academy in St. Petersburg. He was also one of the first in Russia to draw the attention of the state to the need to develop orthopedic care for disabled children and headed the "Medical and educational home for physically handicapped children", which in 1931 became the "Institute for the restoration of the ability of physically handicapped children named. G.I. Turner ".
Military field surgeon Roman Vreden entered the world history of medicine as a pioneer of operative orthopedics. He developed more than 20 types of new bone surgeries and founded an orthopedic hospital in St. Petersburg, today known as the Russian Research Institute of Traumatology and Orthopedics named after V.I. R.R. Harmful.
Stress tolerance and endurance
Today, more than 12 thousand traumatologists and orthopedists work in Russia; this is one of the most popular and promising professions in the field of medicine. Since the methods of treatment in traumatology and orthopedics are very close, the specialty "traumatology and orthopedics" is highlighted in medical universities. The discipline of the same name is compulsory for all students of medical universities in the fifth year.
Those young people who want to become a trauma doctor will have to go a long and difficult way. Such a specialist should have broad knowledge of the work of the musculoskeletal system, methods of diagnosing and treating various types of injuries, and be able to read X-rays. In addition, the traumatologist must have tremendous stress resistance and endurance. Anyone who has ever been to trauma departments knows very well in what difficult conditions doctors work there. Traumatologists treat with great irony the wishes of "good night" from patients - in their work there are never good nights.
Machines in traumatology
Traumatology and orthopedics is one of the fastest growing areas of medicine, in which advanced technologies are successfully introduced. So, since last year, Sechenov University began to actively use a robotic traumatologist in clinical practice, which performs operations literally with millimeter precision.
In particular, a trauma robot is used for primary total knee arthroplasty. At the first stage of treatment, preoperative planning is carried out at a specialized robot workstation using computed tomography of the entire lower limb. The system builds an image and measures over 400 parameters. Then the specialists select the exclusive type, size and position of the prosthesis in the virtual model of the patient's bone. In the operating room, the surgeon digitizes the articular surfaces, after which the robotic system independently performs the main stage of the operation in an automatic mode.
Last year, the Sechenov Institute carried out more than 30 operations with the help of a robot traumatologist, in 2020 it is planned to increase their number to 200.
We disassemble the bones
And finally, some interesting facts about human bones that are well known to traumatologists, but will be useful to everyone.
One of the strongest bones is the tibia. It can withstand a load of up to one and a half tons.
- Human bones are completely renewed every seven years, but this process slows down with age. The older a person is, the more fragile his bones are and the longer the recovery process after fractures.
- Most often, people break the hand and collarbone. Remember this when doing the now fashionable burpee exercise.
Ribs can be broken not only by falling or hitting, but even by coughing or sneezing. Medical attention for such an injury is required when the rib is broken in several places and obstructs breathing. In this case, surgical intervention is required. But, as a rule, the doctor simply observes the fusion process at the fracture site.
- The term "crack in the bone" does not exist in medical practice; in fact, doctors say this to patients so as not to frighten. A crack is a fracture, only without displacement and with preservation of the isthmus of intact bone tissue. Fractures also include fractures, depressions, and cracking.
- The least traumatic type of physical activity is walking. So if you want to be in good shape and rarely see a traumatologist, buy yourself Nordic walking sticks.
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