Table of contents:
- How to protect yourself from coronavirus?
- How COVID-19 is transmitted
- Prevention of coronavirus in humans
- What masks protect against coronavirus
- At what temperature does the coronavirus die?
- Does alcohol kill coronavirus
Video: How To Protect Yourself From Coronavirus?
How to protect yourself from coronavirus?
After the schoolchildren were transferred to distance learning, and buckwheat ran out in supermarkets, everyone believed in the seriousness of the COVID-19 threat. Almost. There are still many skeptics - people are still arguing whether to stay at home and wear masks. We bring together everything that is known at the moment on the topic of protection against COVID-19
How COVID-19 is transmitted
Media and social media are full of versions and counter versions. The best thing in this situation is to rely on official WHO information, as well as on the websites of city administrations and health departments: they tell you not only how to protect yourself from infection, but also what will happen to you for breaking the rules. On the website of the Mayor of Moscow, literally the following is written: “By the Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 66 dated January 31, 2020, coronavirus infection (2019-nCoV) was included in the list of diseases that pose a danger to others. Violation of the law entails liability, including criminal liability, up to imprisonment for up to five years. … In case of violation of the regime, the placement of a citizen in an observational center is provided. Violation of legislation in the field of ensuring the sanitary and epidemiological well-being of the population,expressed in violation of existing sanitary rules and hygienic standards, failure to comply with sanitary and hygienic and anti-epidemic measures, entails liability (Article 236 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation)."
But, since even under the threat of criminal liability people who arrived from "dangerous" countries do not always observe the regime of voluntary isolation and hygiene, the virus can jump from them to you literally everywhere: in the subway, in a taxi, in a queue for toilet paper, and even in the elevator of an apartment building.
It is transmitted by airborne droplets and by household contact. Roughly speaking, you can either inhale the aerosol with viruses that the person standing next to you has just exhaled (coughed up, sneezed out); or touch the object on which the infected spray has settled (viruses will be on your hands, and then on everything you touch). This is why self-isolation is the most effective way to protect yourself. Now everyone's task is to break the distribution chain. That is why adults are transferred to remote work, and schools are quarantined.
But from time to time you still have to leave the shelter: for food or to take out the trash. Therefore, additional preventive measures are needed.
Prevention of coronavirus in humans
Given the way the virus spreads, it is easy to understand that there are only two reliable means of prevention: keeping a distance from other people (WHO recommends at least a meter) and following the rules of hygiene.
Here is the second point that needs serious clarification. What does it mean to "maintain hygiene"? To understand the intricacies, we invited the chief infectious disease specialist of the Central Administrative District of the Moscow Department of Health, Ph.D. Ilya Akinfieva
- Wash your hands regularly
“And you need to wash them for at least one minute. It's not so much about the long-term exposure of the soap, but about the correct treatment. That is, soaping and waiting a minute is wrong,”warns our expert. The correct 10-point instruction can be found on the WHO website. But this is what we constantly lose sight of: if your crane is not on photocells, then you touched it with dirty hands to open it - and now viruses multiply on it. Therefore, WHO recommends wiping your hands after washing with a disposable napkin, and then turn the tap through this napkin. Now you probably understand why people carry out tons of toilet paper from stores.
- Wipe your hands with an alcohol-based hand rub
Very important! An antiseptic is used in situations where there is no access to soap and running water: in transport, in a store, in public places - wherever you could touch an infected surface. And at home - item 1.
- Even if you have antiseptics in your pocket, try not to touch any surfaces or touch your face with your hands.
If possible, do not hold onto the handrails in vehicles. Push the button in the elevator through a paper napkin. And of course, avoid shaking hands and other “contact” greetings. If you touch something, wipe your hands with an alcohol wipe or gel. By touching your face, you make it easier for the virus to get onto the mucous membrane through which it will enter the body. The WHO considers it pointless to use rubber gloves: you can easily touch your face with a glove on.
- Do wet cleaning at home more often
It is especially important if it is still impossible for someone from home to work remotely and often have to go out into the city. But, even if you provided the family with complete isolation, then sooner or later the courier will bring you food, and you will open the door for him … And even if he leaves the food in the box under the door, then you will touch the door handle first, then the box, because again the handle … So wipe down any surfaces you touch frequently at home. Including - keyboard and telephone.
- Wear masks
“The mask reduces the risk of illness, although it does not guarantee 100% protection,” explains Ilya Akinfiev. - The mask is effective in confined, poorly ventilated spaces: transport, small offices, small shops. On the street and in large shopping centers (where people do not come close to each other, and the ventilation is good) there is no point in it."
In general, masks are one of the most controversial subjects in the current situation.
What masks protect against coronavirus
The WHO recommends that healthy (asymptomatic) people wear masks only if they are caring for the sick. It is possible, however, that this is due to the global shortage of personal protective equipment. Even doctors lack masks all over the world.
“There is a good substitute,” says our expert, “this is a construction respirator. The popular "medical respirator No. 95" is actually the same technical one. You can try to search the Internet for "paint protective suit" - it works just as well. It is important to remember that the virus spreads through the airborne droplets, which means you need respirators that provide protection from aerosols."
Pay attention to the protection class (FFP). FFP1 protects only against coarse dust, that is, it will not protect against viruses. FFP2 and FFP3 protect against aerosols and therefore viruses. For trips to the metro, the second class is suitable, and the third is needed for doctors, medics, rescuers on duty.
FFP2 are available with or without an exhalation valve. All respirators of the third level of protection are required with an exhalation valve.
“The valve makes breathing easier and lengthens the life of the respirator,” explains Ilya Akinfiev. - If the exhalation goes not into the tissue, but into the valve, then the mask does not get wet from the inside and, therefore, does not lose its filtration ability longer. The mask or respirator without a valve must be changed every 2 hours. With valve - after 8 hours. Moreover, after treatment with FFP3 disinfectant, three can be reused. While we, infectious disease specialists, still have the opportunity to use them as disposable. But if the situation gets worse, then, apparently, additional instructions will appear."
Improper use of the mask can increase the risks, not reduce them. And it is not so easy to replace it correctly (for example, after two hours in transport):
rub your hands with an antiseptic
In all abbreviated versions, there is a risk of touching the face with "infectious" hands …
Now we are carefully looking at item 3. Where to throw it away? There are no trash bins in the metro. At the exit from the metro - there is, but without covers. What will happen to the janitor who comes to empty them so that masks from overcrowded urns do not scatter throughout the city? This issue has not been resolved in any way. But in any case, do not put the used mask in your purse or pocket.
Now try to put on a new mask, holding the used one in one hand … Conclusion: if you are already using a mask or respirator, then look for one with a valve: they are enough for 8 hours - which means you can not change in public places.
At what temperature does the coronavirus die?
Sewing gauze masks yourself, and then boiling them or ironing them with an iron for reuse is troublesome and it is not yet clear how effective. There is no evidence that the virus dies quickly at boiling point.
All hopes that COVID-19 is unstable to certain temperatures (frost, + 27 ° C, etc.) is a myth. We all have a body temperature of 36-37 ° C, and the virus survives well there.
Does alcohol kill coronavirus
Alcohol does kill the coronavirus. Therefore, all alcohol-containing antiseptics and alcohol wipes disappeared from pharmacies at the same time as masks. But medical alcohol has not been sold since the days of Gorbachev and the anti-alcohol company.
“Antiseptics are chlorine-containing and alcohol-containing,” Ilya Akinfiev consoles. - Chlorine-containing ones can be used even on mucous membranes, and they are not as harmful to the skin as alcohol-containing ones … But they are not as effective either. They, for example, are useless to handle door handles. Better vodka, although 40 ° C is not enough for disinfection."
Back in 2012, WHO, without any connection with the coronavirus, published instructions for the poorest countries on the production of disinfectant gels in the field (in Pakistan, Kenya, Mali). Now this instruction is readily mastered by the inhabitants of enlightened Europe. If you can get 96% alcohol somewhere relatively legally, then the recipe is:
Alcohol - 417 ml
- Hydrogen peroxide (3%) - 21 ml
- Glycerin (98%) - 7 ml
- Water - 50 ml.
Pour all this into a canister or bottle in the order of listing: alcohol, peroxide, glycerin, water. Close with a screw cap and shake well. And then you pour it into small bottles that you can take with you on the road.
The percentage of alcohol in this solution will be about 80 - enough to kill the virus. As you might guess, 40-degree vodka is twice as weak. But she's better than nothing. If you use vodka for disinfection, then it is important not to forget about additional hand care: apply moisturizing and softening creams. In an antiseptic, glycerin acts as a moisturizer.
But taking alcohol by mouth does not help to defeat the virus. Rather, the opposite is true.
“Alcohol is an immunosuppressant. And it increases the likelihood of illness,”warns the infectious disease doctor.