CMVI, Toxoplasmosis, Microbiota Disorders: The Dangers Of The Unborn Child

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CMVI, Toxoplasmosis, Microbiota Disorders: The Dangers Of The Unborn Child
CMVI, Toxoplasmosis, Microbiota Disorders: The Dangers Of The Unborn Child

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CMVI, toxoplasmosis, microbiota disorders: the dangers of the unborn child

Stress during pregnancy, infections and taking antibiotics to fight them. The dangers that lie in wait for the unborn child, as well as the methods of laboratory diagnostics and prophylaxis existing today, were discussed at the scientific and practical conference "Infections in obstetrics and neonatology", held within the framework of the All-Russian scientific and educational forum "Mother and Child".

CMVI, toxoplasmosis, microbiota disorders: the dangers of the unborn child
CMVI, toxoplasmosis, microbiota disorders: the dangers of the unborn child

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Stress during pregnancy, infections and taking antibiotics to fight them. The dangers that lie in wait for the unborn child, as well as the methods of laboratory diagnostics and prevention existing today, were discussed at the scientific-practical conference "Infections in obstetrics and neonatology", which was held within the framework of the XX All-Russian scientific and educational forum "Mother and Child".

The All-Russian Scientific and Educational Forum "Mother and Child" is one of the largest professional events affecting a variety of aspects in the field of gynecology, obstetrics and neonatology: reproductive health, infectious and inflammatory diseases, new possibilities of molecular diagnostics, nutritional technologies and surgery, and many others. … The forum was attended by thousands of specialists from all branches of medicine, representing almost all regions of the Russian Federation and different countries of the world.

Changes in the microbiome

The formation of the microbiota in a child of the first year of life goes through several important stages: intrauterine development, the intrapartum and early postnatal period, as well as the period of the introduction of complementary foods and the expansion of the diet. And each stage plays an important role in maintaining the health of the child, said the deputy. Director for Research of the Central Research Institute of Epidemiology of Rospotrebnadzor Alexander Gorelov. Thus, stress and taking antibiotics during pregnancy lead to a decrease in the number of bifidobateria and lactobacilli and a delay in adequate colonization. This, in turn, increases the child's risk of developing allergies.

In addition, changes in the microbiome lead to the development of massive infections, autoimmune diseases and obesity. “All immunological events in the gastrointestinal tract are reflected in the systemic circulation,” Gorelov noted. - There is a close connection between the immune systems of various organs and systems of the human body. And disturbances in the immune balance in one area can affect the immune status of others."

Pregnancy and toxoplasmosis

According to various estimates, T.gondii infects between 500 million and 2 billion people worldwide. In Russia, the incidence of toxoplasmosis is 28-37%, in the Nordic countries - 14%, in the USA - 22.5%. The highest risk of fetal infection in the third trimester (up to 62%), recalled Elvira Domonova, a senior researcher in the research group for the development of new methods for diagnosing opportunistic and human papillomavirus infections at the Central Research Institute of Epidemiology. In 10-15% of infected newborns, clinical forms of congenital toxoplasmosis are detected, and in 85-90% - subclinical forms with long-term consequences.

The expert listed the main routes of infection: alimentary, transplacental, parenteral and contact (extremely rare). As well as measures to prevent this infection: the need to screen pregnant women, exclude the use of insufficiently heat-treated meat and milk, adhere to personal hygiene, and limit contact with cats.

Cytomegalovirus infection (CMVI) in obstetrics and neonatology

According to Olga Shipulina, the head of the scientific group for the development of new methods for diagnosing opportunistic and human papillomavirus infections at the TsNIIE, today 50-100% of the adult population, depending on age and region, is infected with CMVI. During pregnancy, the incidence of primary CMVI is 0.7-4.1%, secondary - 13-14%. And the risk of intrauterine infection of the fetus with primary CMVI of the mother is 30-40%, with relapses - 1-2%.

Congenital CMVI is one of the main causes of perinatal mortality and early childhood disability. Moreover, the correct diagnosis is established only in isolated cases: the detection rate of this infection is 0.2–2.5%. As a result of the difficulties in diagnosing CMVI in children of the first year of life, etiotropic therapy is prescribed with a delay, which significantly worsens the prognosis of the disease.

According to Shipulina's owls, the main marker of a high risk of fetal infection and the development of congenital CMVI is CMV DNA detected in the blood of a pregnant woman. In this case, it is necessary to test whole blood for the presence of CMV DNA or virus antigen in the first 4-6 weeks of a child's life, and if the result is positive, quantitative determination of CMV DNA in whole blood. But in order to see this marker, it is necessary to introduce screening of pregnant women for CMVI. The expert called vaccination another effective means of preventing infection.

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