News From The Life Of Infections

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News From The Life Of Infections
News From The Life Of Infections

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Video: What to know about 'breakthrough infections' after being vaccinated l GMA 2023, February
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News from the life of infections

Studies of the prevalence of various infections in Russia and the world, as well as a comparative analysis of modern methods of their detection, became the main topics of the III Forum "Molecular Diagnostics", which took place in mid-September in Moscow as part of the V Russian Congress of Laboratory Medicine.

News from the life of infections
News from the life of infections

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Studies of the prevalence of various infections in Russia and the world, as well as a comparative analysis of modern methods of their detection, became the main topics of the III Forum "Molecular Diagnostics", which took place in mid-September in Moscow as part of the V Russian Congress of Laboratory Medicine.

Meningococcal disease: the problem is becoming more urgent

The analysis of data received by the reference center of the Central Research Institute of Epidemiology of Rospotrebnadzor (TsNIIE) makes it possible to assess the epidemiological situation of meningococcal infection in general and to identify the most common causative agents of this infection. According to Svetlana Matosova, a representative of the scientific group for the development of new methods for diagnosing opportunistic and human papillomavirus infections, Svetlana Matosova, in our country, mandatory monitoring of cases of generalized forms of meningococcal infection is carried out.

Today, the incidence is less than one case per 100 thousand population. This is a rather low figure. Nevertheless, in recent years in Russia there has been a change in the dominant serogroup of meningococci. And although in 2019 predominantly serogroup A meningococci (75%) circulated, at the same time, serogroup W meningococci were also isolated, which are associated with epidemic increases in incidence in many countries of the world since the 1990s.

Mycoplasma genitalium - prevalence and antibiotic resistance

Mycoplasma genitalium is the only mycoplasma causing inflammatory diseases, including the pelvic organs, and the biggest problem with treating this infection is its antibiotic resistance. The topic of the prevalence of strains of Mycoplasma genitalium was devoted to the report of the head. Laboratory of Molecular Diagnostics and Epidemiology of Infections of the Reproductive Organs of the Central Research Institute of Epidemiology, Alexander Gushchin. The scientist emphasized that in Russia, according to 2018 data, the resistance of Mycoplasma genitalium has doubled compared to 2014 and amounted to 14%.

In Europe, the prevalence of antibiotic resistance mutations is even higher (30-40%). In this regard, the problem of choosing the tactics of therapy is acute, Gushchin noted. And also the importance of using not only tests to identify the pathogen, but also to identify mutant strains.

Hepatitis C: a global problem of world medicine

Drug resistance and the prevalence of recombinant forms of hepatitis C (HCV) is another topic of concern to scientists and doctors around the world. Nikolay Pimenov, a researcher of the laboratory of viral hepatitis of the Central Research Institute of Epidemiology, presented the results of genotyping according to the monitoring system of the register of patients with viral hepatitis. According to these data, the most relevant therapy is selected.

Over the past 15 years, there have been no significant changes in the structure of HCV genotypes circulating in the Russian Federation. Currently, HCV genotypes 1, 2, 3 are circulating in our country with the dominance (in all regions) of genotypes 1 and 3. The research results showed that genotype 1 was found with a greater frequency in the European part of Russia, genotype 3 - in the Urals and in Siberia, and genotype 2 - in the Far East. Genotypes 1 and 2 are more often detected in women over 50 years old, and genotype 3 - in men in the age groups 21-30 and 31-40 years old.

Molecular diagnostics in the fight against tuberculosis

The importance of molecular genetic methods for etiological diagnosis and epidemiological surveillance of tuberculosis was analyzed by Maria Alvarez Figueroa, head of the research group for the development of new methods for diagnosing tuberculosis at the Central Research Institute of Epidemiology. For each patient, this is an opportunity to establish a diagnosis at an earlier stage of the disease, which increases the chances of improving the treatment outcome.

The high sensitivity of molecular genetic tests achievable today contributes to early detection of the disease, a decrease in the likelihood of transmission of infection and, as a consequence, a decrease in the prevalence of infectious forms of tuberculosis. Today there are several algorithms and tests for detecting various forms of pulmonary tuberculosis. In particular, the scientist noted the effectiveness of the PCR method using the domestic test system AmpliSens in assessing the potential epidemiological danger of tuberculosis cases.

Prevention of cervical cancer

Such prevention is not possible without testing for HPV infection (human papillomavirus). According to Olga Shipulina, head of the scientific group for the development of new methods for diagnosing opportunistic and human papillomavirus infections at the TsNIIE, HPV screening should be introduced in the country so that its data could be used to monitor infection.

The peak incidence of HPV occurs at a young age, so it is young people who, first of all, are subject to primary prevention against cervical cancer, the scientist is sure. Monitoring of HPV infection has shown that since HPV vaccination was licensed and recommended, the prevalence of vaccine types has decreased in both 14-19-year-olds and 20-24-year-olds. This analysis demonstrated the high efficacy of the vaccine, and provided evidence of a decrease in the prevalence of HPV among unvaccinated women. All this speaks of the need to include the vaccine against HPV infection in the national immunization schedule of our country, said Shipulina.

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