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Video: 10 Factors That Increase Your Risk Of Diabetes
10 factors that increase your risk of diabetes
The risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus are predominantly modifiable, so knowing them will help you avoid the disease. Here is a list of the causes of diabetes with explanations.
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Diabetes is a chronic endocrine metabolic disease caused by insulin deficiency. It is characterized by a metabolic disorder manifested by hyperglycemia (high blood sugar). There are two types of diabetes:
Type 1 - an autoimmune disease, congenital or diagnosed at an early age,
- Type 2 - usually the result of modifiable risk factors; develops in adulthood.
Today, the problem of diabetes mellitus is one of the most acute worldwide. The increase in the number of patients is due to the increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes, so it is worth knowing what exactly increases the likelihood of its development.
Smoking. On the Healthline list, along with other adverse effects of smoking, it is noted that smoking can reduce the body's sensitivity to insulin (a hormone that maintains normal blood sugar levels). Smoking makes it difficult to control blood sugar levels. This is supported by research by Tapani Rönnemaa and 2002 by Jenny Gunton, published (1996 and 2002, respectively) in the American Diabetes Association Diabetes Care.
Constant use of a number of psychoactive drugs. The Global Diabetes Community warns that certain stimulant medications raise blood sugar levels. Consuming them on a regular basis can cause insulin resistance and contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes.
These include amphetamines (speed / amphetamine / methamphetamine), MDxx compounds (ecstasy / molly / MDMA), and drugs used to help focus attention in ADHD (Adderall / Eddy / Vivans).
Taking some medicines. GlobalRPH has released a list of medicines that can increase blood sugar levels. These include, inter alia, steroids, anti-ADHD, antipsychotics, and certain asthma medications. Typically, their benefits for treating the underlying conditions outweigh the possible side effects, in particular the effect on blood sugar levels. Therefore, the balance of harm and benefit should be discussed with the attending physician for additional information in each specific case.
Chronic stress. In a stressful situation, the body releases glucose. Long periods of emotional or physical stress can lead to high blood sugar levels. When the body is stressed, sugar is released into the bloodstream, helping to provide adequate energy where needed. According to the Diabetes Teaching Center at the University of San Francisco, "stress can lead to high blood sugar levels and make it difficult to control." Chronic stress conditions significantly increase the risk of developing diabetes.
Diet. Long-term consumption of high-sugar foods, along with significant weight gain, increases the risk of developing diabetes.
The 2018 American Diabetes Association Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes identifies risk factors for increasing blood sugar levels:
constant consumption of inexpensive, carbohydrate-fortified foods,
- alcohol abuse,
- food insecurity (“unreliable availability of food with high nutritional value”).
Lack of physical activity. The ADA (American Diabetes Association), in its Statement on Physical Activity / Exercise and Diabetes, warns that significant periods of sedentary life can lead to "impairment [blood sugar control]." Even light to moderate aerobic exercise "enhances the effect of insulin", better control blood sugar levels throughout the day.
The type of exercise also matters: "A combination of endurance exercise with exercise can improve [blood sugar] and [high-intensity interval training] may be superior to continuous aerobic exercise in adults with diabetes."
High cholesterol. According to ADA data, high levels of "bad" cholesterol (particularly triglycerides) are a risk factor for poor blood sugar control. In addition, low levels of "good" cholesterol (HDL - high density lipoprotein) may increase the risk of diabetes. However, new research provides conflicting results on this score.
Pregnancy. Changes in the body caused by pregnancy can lead to the development of a special type of diabetes called gestational diabetes. Most cases of HD resolve spontaneously after childbirth, but it can be a risk factor for developing type 2 diabetes later in life.
According to a Mayo Clinic review, "gestational diabetes causes no noticeable signs or symptoms." HD tests are part of routine early pregnancy screening.
Ignoring the symptoms of prediabetes. In the 2018 Diabetes Care Standards, prediabetes is defined as "a term used for individuals whose glucose levels do not meet the criteria for diabetes but are too high to be considered normal."
Mayo Clinic points out that prediabetes may be asymptomatic, but in some cases there may be increased urination, increased thirst, and velvety brown spots on the skin. If you experience any of these symptoms, you should see your doctor immediately.
Factors that cannot be changed. There are some innate things that increase your risk of developing type 2 diabetes. According to ADA, the baseline risk can be increased by:
- male gender,
- genetic factors,
- a family history of diabetes,
- some medical diagnoses (for example, polycystic ovary syndrome.
Adapted from Business Insider Australia.