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Video: How To Get Screened And Stop Being Afraid
2023 Author: Abraham Higgins | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-27 23:16
How to get screened and stop being afraid
Regular oncological screening is necessary for every person who considers himself healthy, but in our country neither citizens nor physicians show any signs of cancer. To a large extent, such screening could be replaced by medical examination, if doctors did not conduct it for show, and citizens did not ignore the opportunities provided to them.
Regular oncological screening is necessary for every person who considers himself healthy, but in our country neither citizens nor physicians show any signs of cancer. And this despite the fact that, by the age of 30, almost half of Russians have blood relatives who have had cancer. To a large extent, such screening could be replaced by medical examination, if doctors did not conduct it for show, and citizens did not ignore the opportunities provided to them.
The main tool for early detection of dangerous diseases, including cancer, was to be the general medical examination of the population launched in Russia in 2012. However, the expensive program, with which so many hopes were pinned, in fact turned into a profanation. The monitoring carried out by Roszdravnadzor showed that the clinical examination is carried out formally and not in full, and the work to involve people in it is carried out only among patients who came to the polyclinic on other issues. As a result, the first stage of cancer is still detected in only 10-15% of Russians. Oncologists have long drawn the attention of the Ministry of Health to this, but nothing has changed.
At the same time, the point is not only in the Ministry of Health and doctors, but also in our "ostrich" behavior - Russians try to close their eyes to incomprehensible symptoms as long as possible and postpone a visit to the doctor. Carcinophobia is an epidemic of the 21st century. We know perfectly well that the first place among the causes of mortality is occupied by cardiovascular diseases, but we are panicky afraid of cancer diagnosis.
“In our country, people do not trust medicine, neglect it, they are afraid to go for a prophylactic examination,” admits the chief oncologist of the capital, director of the Moscow Clinical Research Center Igor Khatkov. - Many even boast that they do not go to the doctors until they press it at all. And as a result, then doctors and patients themselves have to perform feats. But feats always give worse results than systemic work. And this work should begin with early detection of cancer, and even better - precancerous conditions.
The word "screening" refers to mass screening of large groups of the population aimed at identifying asymptomatic cancer in risk groups. (When there are symptoms and complaints, not screening is done, but diagnosis). For every age and sex and for every personal and family history, there is a range of tests. These sets are different in each country - different regions have different incidence rates, peaks at certain ages.
There are no official national standards in Russia. But in general, Western standards are suitable for our country, according to which six types of cancer are subject to screening, which account for 70% of all cases - lung, breast, colon and rectal, prostate, cervical and skin cancers. So, screening for cervical cancer involves examination and taking a smear, screening for colon cancer - an analysis of feces for occult blood and sigmoidoscopy.
“We have all this too,” says Khatkov. - Days of free diagnostics are regularly held in Moscow, although we understand that this activity should be intensified. But the most important thing is preventive examinations. Especially if someone from close relatives was ill with cancer. At the same time, you should start checking at the age of 10 years less than the age at which a relative fell ill. Perhaps this examination will be divided into stages and not very convenient for a working person. But in Moscow there are many institutions that have check-up programs for every age, starting from 40 years old, and examine more quickly."
or medical examination
Outside the Moscow Ring Road, oncologists rely more on prophylactic medical examinations. According to the chief oncologist of the Volga Federal District and the Republic of Tatarstan Rustem Khasanov, an oncological component is also included in the clinical examination: elements of screening for prostate cancer, screening for cervical cancer, mammography to determine breast cancer, fecal occult blood analysis to determine diseases of the colon. And if you approach this professionally, then clinical examination can be very effective. If we carry out medical examination "for show", without using modern methods, it will be thrown away money.
In the Krasnoyarsk Territory, on the initiative of the oncological service, the regional authorities have added oncological screening to the clinical examination. In all polyclinics of the region, there is a program aimed at identifying external types of cancer, which, unlike medical examination, is carried out annually for people over 50 years old. And for smoking men, a low-dose computed tomography of the lungs was added to this program. In addition, the region introduced material incentives for physicians (not oncologists) for the early detection of oncological diseases.
The problem is that in our country it is necessary to motivate not only the doctor, but also the patient, experts say. Citizens are not in a hurry for medical examinations even in "advanced" Moscow. As a survey conducted by the Moscow City MHI Foundation has shown, not everyone is ready to undergo medical examination on their own initiative: more than half of the respondents (67%) are waiting for an invitation by phone from their clinic, 7% will agree to this under the influence of an advertising campaign, and 9.5% not at all ready for such a health check.
Once every three years, it's still worth spending time on yourself
Medical examination in Russia is voluntary. Every current year, citizens who have reached the age of 21, 24, 27, 30 and so on can undergo medical examination. According to Vera Shastina, the head physician of the Moscow city polyclinic No. 220, no special training is required for this. You just need to go to the clinic to your local therapist or to the department of medical prevention.
Mandatory for all age groups are a clinical blood test, determination of total cholesterol and blood glucose, general urine analysis, pulmonary fluorography, electrocardiography. For women - examination by a gynecologist with taking a smear from the cervix for cytological examination. In addition to the universal set, there are also examinations designed to identify the most likely diseases for a specific age and gender. So, the study of feces for occult blood is allowed for all citizens of 48 years and older. Measurement of intraocular pressure is required from the age of 39. For women from this age, mammography is performed. At the age of 39, 45, 51, 57, 63 and 69 years, a biochemical blood test, ultrasound examination of the abdominal organs, kidneys, pelvic organs is performed, and for smokers, an ultrasound of the abdominal aorta is also performed.
The second stage of clinical examination is carried out for the purpose of additional examination and clarification of the diagnosis, explains Shastina. For example, in the presence of signs indicating a possible oncological disease of the upper gastrointestinal tract or burdened heredity, esophagogastroduodenoscopy is performed for people over 50 years old. And with a positive analysis of feces for occult blood, the patient is sent for a consultation with a proctologist, and then for a colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy. “In my opinion, citizens who evade clinical examination have no moral right to blame medicine for failure. Yes, the examination will take some time. But, you see, once every three years it is worth spending time on yourself,”Shastina said.
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